5.3.1. Principle of operation of the diesel engineMotive compartment of a diesel dvinatel with the DDE 2.1 regulator
1. Pulse sensor of a bent shaft
2. Sensor of temperature of cooling liquid
3. Sensor of temperature of forced
4. Forcing pressure sensor
|5. The switching valve of recirculation of OG
6. DDE 2.1 monitor
7. Fuel Pump of High Pressure (FPHP)
In the diesel engine in cylinders clean air podsasyvatsya and is exposed to strong compression. Thanks to it air temperature in cylinders rises higher than temperature of ignition of diesel fuel. When the piston is slightly above from VMT, diesel fuel is injected into the air which is strongly compressed and warmed to +600 °C. Diesel fuel ignites itself, spark plugs are not required.
At very cold engine temperature of ignition is not reached by only one compression.
In this case the engine needs to be warmed previously. For this purpose in each vortex camera there is a glow plug which warms up air in the combustion chamber. In order that the cold engine worked better, fuel is injected into hot air earlier. As soon as the engine reached working temperature, the injection moment automatically moves back. Regulation of the beginning of injection makes the DDE monitor (DDE = Digital Diesel Electronic), and also regulation of number of injection and pressure of pressurization for a turbocompressor.
Fuel moves from the fuel tank the giving fuel pump, and also TNVD to the engine. In TNVD the high pressure about 160 bars and fuel according to an order of ignition is created distributed on separate cylinders. The injectable amount of fuel is defined by the DDE monitor, at corresponding impact on the accelerator pedal, whose situation is traced by a potentiometer. Through nozzles diesel fuel moves in certain time in vortex cameras of the corresponding cylinders. At a compression stage the soaked-up air gets a certain whirl in a form of the vortex camera and, thus, optimum mixes up with injectable fuel.
Before fuel gets to TNVD, it passes through the fuel filter. There it is cleared of dirt and water. Therefore it is important to replace the fuel filter according to recommendations about maintenance.
TNVD does not demand service. All mobile parts of the pump are greased with diesel fuel. The pump is put in action by a bent shaft through a chain.
As the diesel engine represents the device with self-ignition of fuel and at interruption of tension in system of ignition it is not switched off, it is equipped with the electromagnetic valve. At switching off of ignition tension on the electromagnetic valve is disconnected, and the valve blocks the fuel channel. Thanks to it interruption in supply of fuel before locking of the lock of a steering column is provided. At start of the engine the starter switch on the electromagnetic valve tension and by that the fuel channel opens moves.
The DDE monitor watches and prevents malfunctions in system of injection. Masterful OPEL can provide the device for finding of malfunctions which is connected to the monitor, interviews and reads out malfunctions.